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Roman Food

Romans are known for their eating but, often this focuses on the social and political elite. The diet of Romans was varied and interesting but not all that different from the Western pallet of today.

Did Romans Eat Meat?

Romans consumed meat, but the amount and type of meat they ate varied depending on their social status and geographical location within the vast Roman Empire.

Social Class

The consumption of meat was often linked to one's social class. The wealthy elite had more access to meat, especially exotic and rare types, while the common people had a more limited meat diet, often consisting of pork and poultry.


Pork was the most consumed meat in ancient Rome. The Romans raised pigs in large numbers, and pork was readily available. It was used in various dishes, including roasts, sausages, and stews.


Chicken and other poultry were also part of the Roman diet, though they were not as common as pork. Romans prepared chicken in various ways, including roasting and stewing.

Wild Game

In some regions of the empire, hunting wild game was a popular activity among the upper classes. This introduced venison, wild boar, and other game meats into their diet.

Exotic Meats

Wealthy Romans could afford exotic and rare meats, such as peacock, ostrich, and flamingo. These meats were considered delicacies and were reserved for special occasions.

Fish and Seafood

Given the extensive coastline of the Roman Empire, seafood was a significant part of the diet, particularly in coastal regions. Romans enjoyed a wide variety of fish and shellfish.

Sacrificial Meat

In religious ceremonies, animals were often sacrificed, and some of the meat was distributed to participants. This was a source of meat for many Romans.


It's worth noting that not all Romans consumed meat. Some adhered to vegetarian or vegan diets for philosophical or religious reasons. The philosopher Seneca, for example, was known for his vegetarianism.



Meat consumption in ancient Rome varied based on factors such as social class, geographical location, and personal preferences. While the wealthy had access to a wider range of meats, including exotic options, the common people primarily relied on pork, poultry, and seafood as their meat sources.

20 Favorite Foods of Ancient Rome

The Romans, renowned for their achievements in art, architecture, and governance, also made significant contributions to the world of gastronomy. Roman cuisine was influenced by diverse cultures and ingredients from across their vast empire. In this article, we explore 20 of the Romans' favorite foods, providing a glimpse into their culinary heritage.

Bread (Panis)

Bread was a staple of the Roman diet, made from a variety of grains, including wheat, barley, and spelt. It was eaten by people from all social classes. The legacy of Roman bread endures in the countless varieties of bread enjoyed worldwide today.

Olives (Olea)

Olives, both green and black, were a popular Roman snack. They were also used to extract olive oil, a crucial ingredient in Roman cooking. Olive oil remains a cornerstone of Mediterranean cuisine.

Wine (Vinum)

Romans were avid wine drinkers. Wine was an integral part of their social gatherings and was produced in various regions of the empire. Winemaking traditions continue to thrive globally.

Honey (Mel)

Honey was a primary sweetener in Roman cuisine and was used in numerous dishes, including desserts. Its natural sweetness is still valued in modern cooking.

Cheese (Caseus)

Romans enjoyed a variety of cheeses, ranging from soft, fresh cheeses to aged, hard cheeses. Modern cheese-making owes much to Roman innovation.


Garum was a fermented fish sauce that added a distinct umami flavor to Roman dishes. It was a ubiquitous condiment. While garum itself may have fallen out of favor, fermented sauces and condiments inspired by it endure.

Fish (Piscis)

Seafood, including fish and shellfish, was highly prized in Roman cuisine. Popular choices included mullet, tuna, and mackerel. Seafood remains a delicacy in modern gastronomy.

Dates (Dactylus)

Dates were consumed both fresh and dried. They were often used in sweet dishes and desserts. Dates are still enjoyed as a natural sweetener and snack.

Figs (Ficus)

Figs were a favorite fruit among Romans and were consumed fresh or dried. They were sometimes stuffed with nuts and honey. Figs are celebrated in both traditional and contemporary dishes.

Grapes (Uva)

Grapes were enjoyed as a fruit and were also used to make raisins and, of course, wine. The enduring appeal of grapes is evident in their role in modern cuisine and winemaking.

Cherries (Cerasa)

Cherries were a beloved fruit, and they made their way into various Roman dishes and desserts. Cherries continue to be a favorite in pies, preserves, and more.

Lentils (Lens)

Lentils were a common source of protein in the Roman diet and were used in soups, stews, and porridge. Lentils are a nutritional powerhouse still embraced in contemporary diets.

Chickpeas (Cicer)

Chickpeas were another essential legume, used in a variety of dishes, including the famous Roman dish, "cicer arietinum" (chickpeas with roasted lamb). Chickpeas are beloved in modern Mediterranean cuisine.

Spices and Herbs

Romans used a wide range of spices and herbs to season their dishes, including black pepper, coriander, and lovage. Many of these spices remain essential in modern culinary endeavors.

Pork (Porcus)

Pork was a favored meat, and Romans prepared it in various ways, including roasting, stewing, and curing to make ham. Pork remains a versatile and beloved meat worldwide.

Rice (Oriza)

Although rice was not native to Italy, it found its way into Roman cuisine through trade and was used in dishes like rice pudding. Rice continues to be a staple in diverse global cuisines.

Eggs (Ova)

Eggs were a versatile ingredient and were used in both savory and sweet preparations. Eggs remain a fundamental component of countless dishes worldwide.

Chicken (Gallus)

While not as common as pork or fish, chicken was still enjoyed by Romans, often prepared in stews, or roasted. Chicken is a global favorite in contemporary cuisine.

Onions (Allium)

Onions were a fundamental ingredient in Roman cooking, adding flavor to a wide range of dishes. Onions continue to be a kitchen essential worldwide.

Mushrooms (Fungus)

Romans foraged for mushrooms, which were used in various recipes, including mushroom and herb stews. Mushrooms remain a versatile ingredient featured in both classic and modern dishes.


And, of course, Pasta!


Roman cuisine reflected the empire's diversity and the availability of ingredients from different regions. The Romans' love for bread, olives, wine, and an array of fruits, vegetables, and spices created a rich and flavorful culinary tradition. While many aspects of Roman life have evolved over time, their culinary legacy continues to influence Mediterranean and international cuisine today, making it a lasting testament to their epicurean tastes.

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